Community Wind Power Development Services
What is Community Wind Power?
Community wind power, also referred to as community wind are wind energy projects that are developed and owned at the "community" or city/local level. Community wind power projects are owned by investors as well as land owners at the community level where the community wind projects are located at. Typically, the owners/investors of community wind projects include; business owners, farmers, investors, the local utility company and public-private entities. The primary features of community wind power projects are that the local community members and stake-holders have a direct financial stake in the project beyond wind energy lease agreements (the land-owners where the wind turbines are installed) and tax revenues. Community wind power projects are NOT "utility scale wind" where hundreds of megawatts of wind turbine generators are installed, and the power generated is exported to the grid. Community wind power projects are often sized so that 100% of the power generated is used in the community.
2-Bladed Wind Turbines are Inefficient and Provide a Return on Investment
Significantly Lower to 3-Bladed Wind Turbine Generators
Out-dated, Inefficient 2-Bladed Wind Turbines Are Now "Extinct!"
Why 3-Bladed Wind Turbine Generators are Far Superior and
More Efficient than 2-Bladed Wind Turbines
The argument has been settled and the debate is over.
Today's "modern" 3-bladed wind turbines represent the latest technological improvements in wind turbine generators, and are superior to the 20-30 year old technology that 2-bladed wind turbines represent.
First of all, it is important to remember that 2-bladed wind turbines may generate only about 90% of the power of a 3-bladed wind turbine of comparable size. While a 2-bladed wind turbine saves the weight of one extra blade when compared with a 3-bladed wind turbine, engineers of the most efficient wind turbines have determined that the extra blade used on 3 bladed wind turbines provide the optimum wind turbine efficiency and wind turbine design for the "ideal" wind turbine generators of today.
Secondly, the top-3 leading wind turbine manufacturers have standardized on the 3-bladed wind turbine. They do not manufacture any 2-bladed wind turbines. Plainly stated, a wind turbine with an even number of blades (2 blades or 4 blades) are NOT of optimum design or efficiency. In fact, this debate was settled years ago when the wind turbine engineers and designers began building wind turbines over 600 kW in power output.
The leading wind turbine manufacturers and their engineers have decided that 3 bladed wind turbines are the optimum number of wind turbine blades due to the stability of the wind turbine as well as the significant wind loads and stresses placed on a 2-bladed wind turbine. A wind turbine that has an odd number of blades is similar to a disc when calculating the computational fluid dynamics of the wind turbine. Engineers have learned that wind turbines that have an even number of blades - such as the 2 bladed wind turbines of the past - have stability problems for a machine with a stiff structure. The reason for this problem is simple, engineers recognized that when a 2-bladed wind turbine's top blade bends backwards - when the wind turbine's 2 blades are in the vertical position - since it is now generating the maximum power from the wind - that the lower or bottom blade is now aligned with the tower and the blade is hidden or blocked from the wind - and this generates a huge amount of stress and loads on the wind turbine and its' primary components such as the bearings, shaft, transmission etc.
Because of the extreme wind loads and stresses placed on 2-bladed wind turbines, the remaining 2-bladed wind turbine manufacturers have had to resort to a "teetered hub" that helps remove some of the stress and loads placed on 2-bladed wind turbines. While there are some very fine 2-bladed wind turbines, of smaller power output, the bottom line is, 3 bladed wind turbines are inherently better and more efficient than 2-bladed wind turbines.
For these reasons, community wind farm owners and developers, along with utility-scale wind farm owners and developers, would be wise to only consider 3-bladed wind turbines.
Running on "green fuel" such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, Synthesis Gas or natural gas, our CHP Systems are the greenest "clean power generation" systems available as they generate no new greenhouse gas emissions or other hazardous air pollutants.
Clean Power Generation Solutions
CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
The Effective Heat Rate of the CHP System below is
4100 btu/kW with a Net System Efficiency of 92%.
Our CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our Trigeneration energy systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy"
The Answer is Blowing
in the Wind sm
~ "The Answer Is Blowing in the Wind!" sm ~
Business Model of the "Central
Power Plant" is a failed model due to the
following failures of Central Power Plants and the companies that own or operate them:
Highly polluting - generating hazardous air pollutants, mercury and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are now regulated, and are now, or will be heavily taxed.
Consume inordinate amounts of fuel.
Waste inordinate amounts of useful heat energy.
Require as many as 5-10 years to begin construction of new central power plants
Typically owned by highly inefficient, heavily regulated electric utility companies that are massive bureaucracies requiring significant amounts of capital that are passed on to customers
Located as far as 50 miles, to 150 miles from the load center, or market
The new, replacement Business Model to a Central Power Plant is "Dispersed Generation."
Dispersed Generation power and energy systems with CHP Systems are, in general;
At approximately 90% system efficiency, CHP Systems about 250% more efficient than Central Power Plants.
Generate 50% to 100% fewer emissions
Consume 50% to 90% less fuel
Located at the load center, i.e. customer's location, where the "waste heat" energy can be recovered and used by the client.
Can be permitted and built in less than 12-18 months
NOTE: The above can be affected by a number of variables can affect the above. We can provide the turnkey solution and installation for clients in the 500 kW to 10 MW range. Our front-end engineering design and economic analysis determines the optimum solution for our clients, that takes into account the client's location, operation/business and how the client uses power and energy and their existing electric and natural gas rates. All of which play an important role regarding the client's return on investment.
What are CHP Systems?
A CHP System - also known as a cogeneration plant, is the simultaneous production of power and thermal energy. Stated another way, a CHP System integrates an onsite, "decentralized energy" (DE) or "dispersed generation" power and energy system with thermally-activated power and energy technologies such as as absorption chillers for heating and cooling.
CHP Systems are also at the center of every District Energy System.
CHP Systems, District Energy Systems, Integrated Energy Systems, or Trigeneration plants, no matter how they are referred, achieve overall, net system energy efficiencies of > 80% plus one recent CHP System (see pictures below) which achieved 92% system efficiency! This is almost 300% greater efficiency over the electric utility companies and their central power plants"! This means significantly lowered:
Systems achieve these greater energy efficiencies
through the conversion of exhaust or reject heat from power generation into
needed energy services like cooling and heating of buildings as well as
campuses. This is called "Waste
Heat Recovery" or "Recycled
Energy." Development of "packaged" or
Systems for end-use applications, such as commercial and
institutional buildings, is something the founder of our company has been
involved with since the mid 1980's.
In the past, Cogeneration plants have been economically attractive only in sizes above several megawatts. The emergence of a number of small generation technologies, including fuel cells, advanced low emissions engines, and gas turbines with outputs in the 1000 kW - 5000 kW range, should extend the benefits of Integrated Energy Systems to a much larger user base, with a consequent increase in national energy and environmental benefits.
For example, the application of CHP Systems (including Absorption Chillers - or - ADsorption Chillers) in commercial buildings could reduce commercial building energy consumption by 30%.
of such smaller-scale packaged CHP
Systems provides a major breakthrough in energy efficiency
technology, energy savings as well as reduced greenhouse
gas emissions. And, by locating
the power generation at or near the end-user/consumer, i.e. their facility,
building, or campus, the difficulties in siting and building new electric
transmission and electric distribution infrastructures to meet today's
increasing power demand are minimized.
There are numerous markets for Cogeneration / Trigeneration plants, CHP Systems, District Energy Systems or Integrated Energy Systems are commercial or institutional buildings, government facilities, and district energy systems that distribute thermal energy to buildings in a college campus, hospital complex, industrial park, food processing operations, refrigerated warehouses, and also very attractive for cities.
What is "Dispersed Generation"?
Dispersed Generation is similar to Decentralized Energy - which is the opposite of "centralized energy." Dispersed Generation is defined as the efficient deployment of clean, efficient and renewable power, which are located near a "load center" and are in the 10 MW to 150 MW to as much as 300 MW range.
Our new company is focused in solving power problems in the 1 MW to 30 MW range as well as providing solutions for the "demand side management" market opportunities.
added nearly 1,400 megawatts of new wind energy capacity during the second
quarter of 2008.
turbines this year will generate 7,500 megawatts of additional electricity
which surpasses the 5,249 megawatts installed in 2007.
power accounted for more than one-third of the new electric generating
capacity installed in the U.S. in 2007.
industry is projected to grow at a 45 percent pace for the second straight
megawatt (MW) of wind energy produced, $1 million in economic development is
generated. This includes revenue from planning, construction, etc.
revitalizes rural communities by providing steady income through lease and
royalty payments to farmers and other landowners.
income: It is estimated that the income to a landowner from a single
utility-scale turbine is approximately $2000 per year. For a 250-acre farm
with income from wind at $55 per acre, this translates into an annual income
from wind leases of $14,000, with no more than 2-3 acres removed from
Jobs: Wind energy
resources bring needed jobs to rural communities and bolster farm incomes
against bad weather. Worldwide, wind and solar industries are likely to be
one of the main sources of new manufacturing jobs in the 21st century.
Wind energy costs
for consumers are low and stable. This is particularly beneficial for those
on fixed incomes.
As wind energy
production becomes more efficient, costs will decline, while fossil fuel
prices are expected to rise.
Wind energy is a
widespread, inexhaustible resource: 46 of 50 states have wind resources that
could be developed.
ENERGY GENERATES CARBON FREE ENERGY & POLLUTION FREE POWER!
Power generated from the wind reduces smog and eliminates a major source of
acid rain. Wind energy has the potential to reduce Carbon Dioxide
Emissions (one of the most potent of all Greenhouse Gas Emissions) by 1/3 in
the U.S. and world Carbon Dioxide Emissions by 4%!
growth: Development of just 10% of 10 of the windiest states could provide
more than enough energy to displace emissions from coal-fired power plants.
Cleaner air means
healthier air, especially for people with respiratory disabilities.
Wind Power Generation vs. Traditional Power Generation
generated from clean, green wind energy avoids numerous negative effects of
traditional electricity generation from fossil fuels:
• Emissions of mercury or other heavy metals into the air
• Emissions associated with extracting and transporting fuels
• Lake and streambed acidification from acid rain or mining
• Water consumption associated with mining or electricity generation
• Production of toxic solid wastes, ash, or slurry
• Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The benefits of wind power generation go on - including the leading role wind energy provides in reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions into the atmosphere - the leading cause of climate change and global warming.
Today, Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the United States approaches 6 billion metric tons/year.
39% of these Carbon Dioxide Emissions are produced when electricity is generated from fossil fuels.
United States obtained 20% of its electricity from wind energy, the country
could avoid putting 825 million metric tons of CO2 annually into the atmosphere
by 2030, or a cumulative total of 7,600 million metric tons by 2030.
A relatively straightforward metric used to understand the carbon benefits of wind energy is that a single 1.5 MW wind turbine displaces 2,700 metric tons of CO2 per year compared with the current U.S. average utility fuel mix, or the equivalent of planting 4 square kilometers of forest every year according to AWEA 2007.
What is a Wind Resource Assessment?
A Wind Resource Assessment is defined as the process of characterizing the wind resources, wind characteristics and the site's wind energy potential for that specific site or geographical area.
FOR QUALIFIED LAND/RANCH OWNERS, WITH PROPERTY LOCATED IN AREAS WE ARE
DEVELOPING NEW WIND FARMS, WE CAN PERFORM THE WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT.
All markets for wind turbines require an estimate of how much wind energy is available at potential development sites. Correct estimation of the energy available in the wind can make or break the economics of wind farm development. Wind maps developed in the late '70s and early '80s provided reasonable estimates of areas in which good wind resources could be found. But new tools and new data available from satellites and new sensing devices now allow researchers to create even more accurate and detailed wind maps of the world.
Wind mapping techniques developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab ("NREL") and U.S. companies are being used to produce high-resolution projections of U.S. and foreign regions that are painting a whole new picture of wind potential. These maps are created using highly accurate GPS mapping tools and a vast array of satellite, weather balloon, and meteorological tower data, combined with much-improved numerical computer models. The higher horizontal resolution of these maps (1 km or finer) allows for more accurate wind turbine siting and has also led to the recognition of higher-class winds in areas where none were thought to exist.
The ability to accurately predict when the wind will blow will help remove barriers to wind energy development by allowing wind-power-generating facilities to commit to power purchases in advance. NREL researchers work with federal, state, and private organizations to validate the nation's wind resources and support advances in wind forecasting techniques and dissemination. Wind resource validation is important for both wind resource assessment and the integration of wind farms into an energy grid. Validating new, high-resolution wind resource maps will provide an accurate reading of the wind resource at a particular site. Development of short-term (1 to 4 hours) forecasting tools will help energy producers proceed with new wind farm projects and avoid the penalties they must pay if they do not meet their hourly generation targets. In addition, validating new high-resolution wind resource maps will give people interested in developing wind energy projects greater confidence as to the level of wind resource for a particular site.
We Develop Utility Scale Wind Farms
are "vendor neutral" in terms of wind turbine manufacturer.
Our focus is maximizing revenues and minimizing expenses for our clients.
Our onsite power and energy projects produce the following benefits:
1. Reduced power and energy expenses for our customers
2. Healthy returns on investment for our investors, and
3. Significant savings for our environment
Wind Power Generation Saves Water!
20% of our nation's electricity requirements can be generated with wind power generation by the year 2030 according to the Department of Energy.
When we do, our nation will save over 4 Trillion gallons of water through 2030 through the displacement of typical electric power plants, such as fossil fuel power plants, that would have used vast amount of water. By switching to wind power generation for 20% of our nation's electrical requirements, we reduce overall water consumption by 17% in 2030.
See our website at: www.WindPowerGeneration.com for more information.
The Economic and Environmental Benefits of Wind Power
According to the Department of Energy, our nation's electricity generation from wind power alone could top 20 percent of the total power generation mix by 2030.
This would have the economic benefits of creating 500,000 jobs and generate more than $400 billion.
Wind Power also reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions and other pollution by 25 percent than otherwise.
Installed Windpower Generation (in
Megawatts) by Country
Denmark (& Faeroe Islands)
Texas Wind Power Map
Wind Energy Terminology & Glossary
AC - Alternating Current
Airfoil -The cross section profile of the leeward side of a wind generator blade. Designed to give low drag and good lift. Also found on an airplane wing.
Air Gap - In a
permanent magnet alternator, the distance between the magnets and the laminates.
Alternating Current -
Electricity that changes direction periodically. The period is measured in
Cycles per Second (Hertz, Hz).
Alternator - A device
that produces Alternating Current from the rotation of a shaft.
Amperage - A unit of
electrical current, equal to Coulombs per second. This is the flow rate of
electrons moving through a circuit, very roughly analogous to gallons per minute
flowing from a faucet.
Ampere-Hour - A
measure of energy quantity, equal to amperes times hours. Also used to measure
Anemometer - A device
that measures wind speed.
Angle of Attack - The
angle of relative air flow to the blade chord.
Annealing - A heat
treatment process that makes Cold-rolled steel more suitable for forming and
Area of a Circle - Pi
multiplied by the Radius squared.
Armature - The moving
part of an alternator, generator or motor. In many PM alternator designs, it
carries the magnets and is attached to the blades and hub. Also called a Rotor.
Axial Alternator - An
alternator design where a flat disc carrying magnets on the face (the Armature)
rotates near a flat disc carrying coils (the Stator).
Axis - The centerline
of a rotating object's movement.
Balancing - With wind
turbine blades, adjusting their weight and weight distribution through 2 axes so
that all blades are the same. Unbalanced blades create damaging vibration.
Battery - An
electrochemical device for storing energy.
Battery Bank - An
array of Batteries connected in series, parallel, or both.
Bearing - A device
that transfers a force to structural supports. In a wind generator, bearings
allow the Shaft to rotate freely, and allow the machine to Yaw into and out of
Belt - A device for
transferring power from a rotating shaft to a generator. Allows the use of
Pulleys to change the ratio of shaft speed to and from the generator.
Betz Limit -59.3
percent. This is the theoretical maximum efficiency at which a wind generator
can operate, by slowing the wind down. If the wind generator slows the wind down
too much, air piles up in front of the blades and is not used for extracting
Blade - The part of a
wind generator rotor that catches the wind.
Braking System - A
device to slow a wind turbine's shaft speed down to safe levels electrically or
Bridge Rectifier - An
array of diodes used to convert Alternating Current to Direct Current.
Single-phase bridge rectifiers use 4 diodes, 3-phase bridge rectifiers use 6
Brushes - Devices for
transferring power to or from a rotating object. Usually made of
Ceramic Magnets - See
Chord - The width of a
wind turbine blade at a given location along the length.
of power needed to magnetize or demagnetize a permanent magnet. Measured in
MegaGauss Oersted (mGO)
Cogging - The cyclic
physical resistance felt in some alternator designs from magnets passing the
coils and gaps in the laminates. Detrimental to Start-up.
Coil - A length of
wire wound around a form in multiple turns.
Cold-Rolled Steel -
Steel processed by working at room temperatures. More expensive than hot-rolled
Commutator - The
rotating part of a DC generator.
Concave - A surface
curved like the interior of a circle or sphere.
Convex - A surface
curved like the exterior of a circle or sphere.
Current - See
Cut-In Wind Speed -
The rotational speed at which an alternator or generator starts pushing
electricity hard enough (has a high enough voltage) to make electricity flow in
Cycles per Second -
Measured in Hertz. In electricity, it is the number of times an AC circuit
reaches both minimum and maximum values in one second.
Darrieus Wind Turbine
- A Vertical Axis Wind Turbine design from the 1920s and 1930s by F.M. Darrieus,
a French wind turbine designer.
DC - Direct Current
Delta - A 3-phase
alternator wiring configuration in which all phases are connected in Series.
Diameter - A straight
line passing through the center of a circle, and ending on both edges. Equal to
2 times the Radius.
Diode - A solid-state
device that allows electricity to flow in only one direction.
Downwind - Refers to a
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine in which the hub and blades point away from the
wind direction, the opposite of an Upwind turbine.
Drag - In a wind
generator, the force exerted on an object by moving air. Also refers to a type
of wind generator or anemometer design that uses cups instead of a blades with
Dump Load - A device
to which wind generator power flows when the system batteries are too full to
accept more power, usually an electric heating element. This diversion is
performed by a Shunt Regulator, and allows a Load to be kept on the Alternator
Duty Cycle - In a
circuit, the ratio of off time to on time.
Dynamo - A device that
produces Direct Current from a rotating shaft. See Generator.
Eddy Currents -
Currents that flow in a substance from variations in magnetic induction. See
also Lenz Effect. Laminates are used to prevent eddy currents, which cause
physical and electrical resistance in an alternator or transformer, therefore
Efficiency - The ratio
of energy output to energy input in a device.
Electromagnet - A
device made of wire coils that produces a magnetic field when electricity flows
through the coils.
Epoxy - A 2-part
adhesive system consisting of resin and hardener. It does not start to harden
until the elements are mixed together. NOT compatible with Fiberglas® Resin.
Excitation - Using an
electric current to create a magnetic field. See Electromagnet.
Fatigue - Stress that
causes material failure from repeated, cyclic vibration or stress.
Ferrite Magnets - Also
called Ceramic Magnets. Made of Strontium Ferrite. High Coercivity and Curie
Temperature, low cost, but brittle and 4-5 times weaker than NdFeB magnets.
Resin--Another 2-part adhesive system, NOT compatible with Epoxy. Often used for
making castings, since it is much cheaper than Epoxy.
Freewheeling - a wind
generator that is NOT connected to a Load is freewheeling, and in danger of
self-destruction from overspeeding.
Frequency - Refers to
electric current - Also see Cycles per Second.
Furling - The act of a
wind generator Yawing out of the wind either horizontally or vertically to
protect itself from high wind speeds.
Furling Tail - A wind
generator protection mechanism where the rotor shaft axis is offset horizontally
from the yaw axis, and the tail boom is both offset horizontally and hinged
diagonally, thus allowing the tail to fold up and in during high winds. This
causes the blades to turn out of the wind, protecting the machine.
Gauss - A unit of
magnetic induction, equal to 1 Maxwell per square centimeter. Higher Gauss
measurements mean more power can be induced to flow in an alternator. Gauss
readings can be increased by putting steel behind magnets, stacking magnets, or
using larger or higher-grade magnets.
Gearing - Using a
mechanical system of gears or belts and pulleys to increase or decrease shaft
speed. Power losses from friction are inherent in any gearing system.
Generator - A device
that produces Direct Current from a rotating shaft.
Governor - A device
that regulates the speed of a rotating shaft, either electrically or
Guy Anchor - Attaches
tower guy wires securely to the earth.
Guy Radius - The
distance between a wind turbine tower and the guy anchors.
Guy Wire - Attaches a
tower to a Guy Anchor and the ground.
H-Rotor - A Vertical
Axis Wind Turbine design.
HAWT - Horizontal Axis
Hertz - Frequency
measurement. See Cycles per Second
Horizontal Axis Wind
Turbine - A "normal" wind turbine design, in which the shaft is
parallel to the ground, and the blades are perpendicular to the ground.
Hub - The center of a
wind generator rotor, which holds the blades in place and attaches to the shaft.
Impedance - See
Induction - The
production of a magnetic field by the proximity of a electric charge or the
production of a magnetic field by proximity of an electric charge.
Induction Motor - An
AC motor in which the rotating armature has no electrical connections to it (ie
no slip rings), and consists of alternating plates of aluminum and steel.
Kilowatt - 1000 Watts
kW - Kilowatt.
circuit core parts, found in motors, generators, alternators and transformers.
When core parts are subjected to alternating electrical or magnetic fields, the
buildup of Eddy Currents causes physical and electrical power loss. Laminations
are made of thin strips of materials that make good temporary magnets and poor
permanent magnets, and each strip is insulated electrically from the next.
Leading Edge - The
edge of a blade that faces toward the direction of rotation.
Leeward - Away from
the direction from which the wind blows.
Lenz Effect - See also
Eddy Currents. From H.F.E Lenz in 1833. Electromotive force is induced with
variations in magnetic flux. It can be demonstrated physically in many different
ways--for example dragging a strong magnet over an aluminum or copper plate, or
shorting the terminals of a PM alternator and rotating the shaft by hand.
Laminates are used to reduce power losses from this effect.
Lift - The force
exerted by moving air on asymmetrically-shaped wind generator blades at right
angles to the direction of relative movement. Ideally, wind generator blades
should produce high Lift and low Drag.
Live - A circuit that
is carrying electricity.
Load - Something
physical or electrical that absorbs energy. A wind generator that is connected
to a battery bank is loaded. A disconnected wind generator is NOT loaded, so the
blades are free to spin at very high speed without absorbing any energy from the
wind, and it is in danger of destruction from overspeeding.
Losses - Power that is
harvested by a wind generator but is not transferred to a usable form. Losses
can be from friction, electrical resistance, or other causes.
Magnet - A body that
attracts ferromagnetic materials. Can be a Permanent magnet, Temporary Magnet,
Magnetite - A common
Iron-containing mineral with ferromagnetic properties.
Magnet Wire - The kind
of wire always used in making electromagnets, alternators, generators and
motors. Uses very thin enamel insulation to minimize thickness and maximize
resistance to heat.
Magnetic Circuit - The
path in which magnetic flux flows from one magnet pole to the other.
Magnetic Field -
Magnetic fields are historically described in terms of their effect on electric
charges. A moving electric charge, such as an electron, will accelerate in the
presence of a magnetic field, causing it to change velocity and its direction of
travel. An electrically charged particle moving in a magnetic field will
experience a force (known as the Lorentz force) pushing it in a direction
perpendicular to the magnetic field and the direction of motion. Also called
Maximum Energy Product
- Determines how good a magnet that different materials can make. Technically,
the amount of energy that a material can supply to an external magnetic circuit
when operating within its demagnetization curve.
MegaGauss Oersted -
Magnetic force measurement, see Maximum Energy Product.
MGOe - MegaGauss
Moment - A force
attempting to produce motion around an axis.
NdFeB - See
Nacelle - The
protective covering over the generator or motor at the top of a wind turbine
Magnet - The composition of the most powerful Permanent Magnets known to man.
The materials are mined, processed, and sintered into shape. Then, they are
subjected to an extremely strong magnetic field and become Permanent Magnets.
Ohm's Law - The basic
math needed for nearly all electrical calculations. Please see a dictionary or
Pocket Ref for all of the variations on Ohm's Law! E=I*R (voltage(E)=amperage(I)*resistance(R)),
and all of the algebraic variations of this (I=E/R, R=E/I). Also, for DC
circuits, Watts=Volts*Amps. For AC circuits, Watts=Amps * Volts * Cosine of
phase angle theta.
Open-Circuit Voltage -
The voltage that a alternator or generator produces when it is NOT connected to
Parallel - In DC
electrical circuits such as a battery bank or solar panel array, this is a
connection where all negative terminals are connected to each other, and all
positive terminals are connected to each other. Voltage stays the same, but
amperage is increased. In AC circuits such as a wind generator alternator, each
parallel coil is connected to common supply wires, again increasing amperage but
leaving voltage the same. Opposite of Series. See also Star.
Permanent Magnet - A
material that retains its magnetic properties after an external magnetic field
Alternator - An Alternator that uses moving permanent magnets instead of
Electromagnets to induce current in coils of wire.
PM - Permanent Magnet.
PMA - See Permanent
Phase - The timing of AC current cycles in different wires. 3-phase alternators produce current that is cyclically timed between 3 different wires and a common wire, while single phase produces it in only 1 wire and a common. In a 3-phase alternator, wire #1 receives a voltage peak, then wire #2 receives a peak, then wire #3.
Pillow Blocks -
Bearings that support a horizontal shaft.
Pitch - Setting Angle
of an airfoil or blade.
Poles - A way of
picturing magnetic phenomena. All magnets are considered to be
"dipoles", having both a North pole (which would point North if used
in a compass) and a South pole (which would point South if used in a compass. In
an alternator, generator, or motor the number of Poles is a measure of how many
coils, permanent magnets or electromagnets are in the armature or stator.
Prop - Propeller.
Propeller - The
spinning thing that makes an airplane move forward. Often incorrectly used to
describe a wind turbine Rotor.
Pulley - A device for
transferring power when using Belts as Gearing. Changing to smaller or larger
Pulleys changes the gear ratio, and can be used to make a shaft turn faster or
slower than the shaft that is providing its power.
Pulse Width Modulation
- A regulation method based on Duty Cycle. At full power, a
pulse-width-modulated circuit provides electricity 100 percent of the time. At
half power, the PWM is on half the time and off half the time. The speed of this
alternation is generally very fast. Used in both solar wind regulators to
efficiently provide regulation.
PWM - See Pulse Width
Radius - The distance
between the center of a circle and the outside.
Rare-Earth Magnets -
See Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets.
Rated Power Output -
Used by wind generator manufacturers to provide a baseline for measuring
performance. Rated output may vary by manufacturer. For example, one
manufacturer's 1500 watt turbine may produce that amount of power at a 30 mph
windspeed, while another brand of 1500 watt turbine may not make 1500 Watts
until it gets a 40 mph windspeed. Read manufacturer's ratings statements
Rectifier - See Diode.
Radial - An alternator
design in which the armature magnets are attached to the outside circumference
of a disc, with the stator coils mounted around the outside.
Regulator - A device
to adjust incoming power so as to avoid overcharging a battery bank. In solar
power, the regulator generally just turns the solar array off when the batteries
are full. With a wind generator, the regulator generally diverts all or part of
the incoming power to a Dump Load when the batteries fill, thus keeping a Load
on the wind generator so it will not Freewheel.
Relay - An
electromechanical switch that uses a small amount of incoming electricity to
charge an electromagnet, which physically pulls down a connecting switch to
complete a circuit. This allows a low-power circuit to divert the electricity in
a high-power circuit.
Resistance - The
voltage per amp needed to make electricity flow through a wire. See Ohm's Law.
Root - The area of a
blade nearest to the hub. Generally the thickest and widest part of the blade.
Rotor--1) The blade and hub assembly of a wind generator. 2) The disc part of a vehicle disc brake. 3) The armature of a permanent magnet alternator, which spins and contains permanent magnets.
RPM - Revolutions Per
Minute. The number of times a shaft completes a full revolution in one minute.
Savonius - A
vertical-axis wind turbine design by S.J. Savonius of Finland from the 1920s and
30s. Shaped like a barrel split from end to end and offset along the cut. They
are drag machines, and thus give very low rpm but lots of torque.
Series - In DC
electrical circuits such as a battery bank or solar panel array, this is a
connection where all the negative terminals are connected to the neighboring
positive terminals. Voltage increases, but amperage stays the same. In AC
circuits such as a wind generator alternator, each coil is connected to the one
next to it, and so on, again increasing voltage but leaving amperage the same.
Opposite of Parallel. See also Delta.
Servo Motor - A motor
used for motion control in robots, hard disc drives, etc. Generally designed
more like an alternator than a standard motor, most Servos need special control
circuitry to make them rotate electrically. Some can be used in reverse to
generate alternating current.
Setting Angle - The
angle between the blade Chord and the plane of the blade's rotation. Also called
Pitch or blade angle. A blade carved with a Twist has a different setting angle
at the Tip than at the Root.
Shaft - The rotating
part in the center of a wind generator or motor that transfers power.
Short Circuit - 1)
Parts of a circuit connected together with only the impedance of the leads
between them. 2) In wind generators, connecting the output leads directly
together so as to heavily load a generator in high winds. This creates a
"short" circuit path back to the generator, bypassing all other loads.
Shunt - An electrical
bypass circuit that proportionally divides current flow between the shunt and
the shunted equipment. It also allows high current measurements with low-current
Shunt Regulator - A
bypass device for power not needed for charging batteries. When batteries are
full, the regulator shunts all or part of the excess power to a Dump Load to
protect the batteries from overcharging damage.
Slip Ring - Devices
used to transfer electricity to or from rotating parts. Used in wound-field
alternators, motors, and in some wind generator yaw assemblies.
Star - A coil
connection scheme for 3 phase alternators and generators in which all 3 coil
phases are connected in parallel--they all share a common connection.
Start-Up - The
windspeed at which a wind turbine rotor starts to rotate. It does not
necessarily produce any power until it reaches cut-in speed. See Cut-in Wind
Stationary - With wind
generator towers, a tower that does not tilt up and down. The tower must be
climbed or accessed with a crane to install or service equipment at the top.
Stator - The part of a
motor, generator or alternator that does not rotate. In permanent magnet
alternators it holds the coils and laminates.
Tail - See Vane. The
proper term is actually Vane, but Tail is commonly used.
Tail Boom - A strut
that holds the tail (Vane) to the wind generator frame.
Tape Drive Motor - A
type of permanent magnet DC motor often used as a generator in small wind
Taper - The change in
wind turbine blade width (chord) along the length.
Temporary Magnet - A
material that shows magnetic properties only while exposed to an external
Thrust - In a wind
generator, wind forces pushing back against the rotor. Wind generator bearings
must be designed to handle thrust or else they will fail.
Thrust Bearing - A
bearing that is designed to handle axial forces along the centerline of the
shaft--in a wind generator, this is the force of the wind pushing back against
Tilt-Up - A tower that
is hinged at the base and tilted up into position using a gin pole and winch or
vehicle. Wind turbines on tilt-up towers can be serviced on the ground, with no
Tip - The end of a
wind generator blade farthest from the hub.
Tip Speed Ratio -The
ratio of how much faster than the windspeed that the blade tips are moving.
Torque - Turning
force, equal to force times radius. See also Moment.
Tower - A structure
that supports a wind generator, usually high in the air.
Trailing Edge - The
edge of a blade that faces away from the direction of rotation.
Transformer - Multiple
individual coils of wire wound on a laminate core. Transfers power from one
circuit to another using magnetic induction. Usually used to step voltage up or
down. Works only with AC current.
TSR - Tip Speed Ratio.
Turn - In winding
stator coils, this is one loop of wire around a form. A coil will often be
referred to by how many turns of a certain gauge wire are in each coil.
Twist - In a wind
generator blade, the difference in Pitch between the blade root and the blade
tip. Generally, the twist allows more Pitch at the blade root for easier
Startup, and less Pitch at the tip for better high-speed performance.
Upwind - the direction
in which a wind turbine generator faces into the wind.
Vane - A large, flat
piece of material used to align a wind turbine rotor correctly into the wind.
Usually mounted vertically on the tail boom. Sometimes called a Tail.
Variable Pitch - A
type of wind turbine rotor where the attack angle of the blades can be adjusted
either automatically or manually.
VAWT - Vertical Axis
Vertical Axis Wind
Turbine - A wind generator design where the rotating shaft is perpendicular to
the ground, and the cups or blades rotate parallel to the ground.
Voltage - A measure of
electrical potential difference. One volt is the potential difference needed in
a circuit to make one Ampere flow, dissipating one Watt of heat.
Volt-Amp - In an AC circuit, this is Volts * Amps, without factoring in the power factor, derived from the phase angle.
Watt - One Joule of
electrical energy per second. In DC circuits, Watts=Volts * Amps. In AC
circuits, Watts=Volts * Amps * the cosine of the phase angle. See also Volt-Amp.
Wild AC - Alternating
Current that varies in Frequency.
Wind Generator - A
device that captures the force of the wind to provide rotational motion to
produce power with an alternator or generator.
Windmill - A device
that uses wind power to mill grain into flour. But informally used as a synonym
for wind generator or wind turbine, and to describe machines that pump water
with wind power.
Wind Turbine - A
machine that captures the force of the wind. Called a Wind Generator when used
to produce electricity. Called a Windmill when used to crush grain or pump
Windward - Toward the
direction from which the wind blows.
Yaw - Rotation
parallel to the ground. A wind generator Yaws to face winds coming from
axis through the center of gravity.
Some of the above information provided with our thanks by the Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
What is "Decentralized Energy"?
Decentralized Energy is the opposite of "centralized energy." Decentralized Energy energy generates the power and energy that a residential, commercial or industrial customer needs, onsite. Examples of decentralized energy production are solar energy systems and solar trigeneration energy systems.
Today's electric utility industry was "born" in the 1930's, when fossil fuel prices were cheap, and the cost of wheeling the electricity via transmission power lines, was also cheap. "Central" power plants could be located hundreds of miles from the load centers, or cities, where the electricity was needed. These extreme inefficiencies and cheap fossil fuel prices have added a considerable economic and environmental burden to the consumers and the planet.
Centralized energy is found in the form of electric utility companies that generate power from "central" power plants. Central power plants are highly inefficient, averaging only 33% net system efficiency. This means that the power coming to your home or business - including the line losses and transmission inefficiencies of moving the power - has lost 75% to as much as 80% energy it started with at the "central" power plant. These losses and inefficiencies translate into significantly increased energy expenses by the residential and commercial consumers.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
The "old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the grid entirely. (Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
Typical "central" power plants and the electric utility companies that own them will either be shut-down, closed or go out of business due to one or more of the following: failed business model, inordinate expenses related to central power plants that are inefficient, excessive pollution/emissions, high costs, continued reliance on the use of fossil fuels to generate energy, and the failure to provide efficient, carbon free energy and pollution free power.
Carbon free energy and pollution free power reduces our dependence on foreign oil and makes us Energy Independent while reducing and eliminating Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.
Wind REC Marketing:
Highest Wind REC Prices for our Producers and Best Wind REC Prices for our Buyers!
If your company is in the wind power generation business and presently generating wind power from a U.S. based wind farm, or presently developing/ building a wind farm (with signed Power Purchase Agreement) in the U.S. and seeking a market for your Wind RECs, we have several buyers that may be interested in securing up to 100% of your Wind RECs. Call/email us for more information.
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What is a Renewable Energy Credit?
Energy Credit or "REC" represents 1 MW or 1,000 kWh's of electricity generated from renewable energy
resources which include: such as biofuels, biodiesel,
hydro power, solar,
waste heat recovery
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Reduces reliance on fossil fuels
Promotes renewable energy sources and
Allows purchasers of RECs to go clean.
Call/email us with Renewable
Energy Credit questions and join us in
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy!" sm
Replacing power plants that generate "brown" power from fossil fuels with renewable energy power plants such as Concentrated Solar Power or HCPV solar power plants, not only generates green power, but eliminates Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Hazardous Air Pollutants, while reducing the Earth's Fever and imports of foreign oil!
"Concentrated Solar Power - The Technology That Will Save Humanity."
Net Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming;
What About The Buildings Already Standing?
The market for Distributed PV, also known as "Rooftop PV"
will be a $60 billion/year market by 2013!
American Energy Plan
3-5 million new jobs
Fuel Savings of > $1.50/gallon
American Energy Independence
Ends the worst economic depression of all time
hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for
oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest
thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything
more idiotic than that.”
~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
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